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Why Ice Thermal Storage for District Cooling Projects?

  • BAC provides Proven Technology, as a result of :
    • BAC has been involved in the design and manufacture of ice thermal storage for over 25 years
    • Over 2600 ice thermal storage installations worldwide, with more than one million ton-hours (3,530 MWh) dedicated for district cooling
    • Dedication to research and development in BAC’s 25,000 square foot (2,323 square meter) test facility, designed and built exclusively for the testing and development of heat transfer and thermal storage equipment
    • Twelve patents on ice thermal storage products
    • The BAC product offering provides system flexibility.

Proven Technology

BAC has successfully applied ice thermal storage technology to more than 2,600 installations worldwide. These include more than one million ton-hours (3,530 MWh) of district cooling capacity. BAC has the application and system experience to assist you in the design, installation and operation of your ice storage system.

The BAC product offering provides system design flexibility. Ice can be built using various refrigerants or glycols on steel coils and is used to provide either chilled water or glycol to the cooling system. This flexibility, combined with a broad range of application experiences, allows BAC to provide a cost-effective product to meet your specific requirements.

Exelon Thermal Technologies Plants

Multiple integrated facilities provide a combined total of 314,400 ton-hours (1,110 MWh) of ice storage used to serve the offices and hotels of downtown Chicago. The ice is used to provide 34°F (1°C) water to the district cooling loop and to allow the chillers to be shut off when power is scarce in Chicago.


Comfort Link® Plants

A total of 89,655 ton-hours (317 MWh) installed in multiple separate tanks provides cooling for Baltimore’s downtown offices, sports stadiums and tourist attractions.

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Cosmo Square

A highly efficient district cooling plant that provides cooling to several buildings including the World Trade Center and Asia Trade Center in Osaka, Japan. A total of 29,300 ton-hours (103 MWh) is installed in the underground mechanical room.


Public Service of Colorado

A recent phase II addition provides a total of 75,000 ton-hours (265 MWh) which cools Denver’s downtown office buildings.

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Software Park

22,782 ton-hours (80 MWh) of ice storage providing 36°F (2°C) to this corporate campus in Taipei, Taiwan.

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Stanford University

An existing chilled water storage tank was retrofitted with 93,200 ton-hours (329 MWh) of ice thermal storage. System storage capacity was increased and chilled water supply temperature lowered to increase plant output.


Johns Hopkins University

The central plant has 22,400 ton-hours (79 MWh) of ice thermal storage to cool the main campus. Ice thermal storage was added in two phases to increase the capacity of the existing chilled water plant. The addition of new campus buildings and the increased cooling requirements of the existing buildings made the expansion necessary.



Above Grade Concrete Tanks

The following section shows the flexibility in locating the thermal storage equipment. Examples include above grade concrete storage tanks at the Tampa Electric Company (TECO) Miami Plant, below grade tanks at Baltimore Comfort Link® Camden Yards District Cooling Plant and above grade round steel tanks at the Baltimore Comfort Link® District Plant II. Ice thermal storage equipment can be located below parking facilities, gardens, and driveways, in basements, on grade near the chiller plant or in the chiller plant.

Phase One – Empty concrete tank with liner

Phase One – Empty concrete tank with liner.

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Rigging first ice coil.

Coil Placement

Placement of the first two-coil module.

Final placement of the first pair of two-coil modules

Final placement of the first pair of two-coil modules.

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All coils in place in the tank. The coils are arranged four-coils high by two-coil modules wide by four-coils long.


Tank with glycol supply and return piping above coils.


Outdoor tank complete with concrete covers.

Typical arrangement of glycol chillers in plant adjacent to the tank.


Above Grade Cylindrical Steel Tanks


Above grade round steel tanks at the Baltimore Comfort Link® District Plant II


Aerial view of Baltimore’s Comfort Link® District Cooling Plant II. The concrete building with cooling towers on the roof, houses the chiller plant. Behind the chiller plant are two round steel ice thermal storage tanks.


Steel tanks located behind the cooling towers out of sight.


Welded steel tank ready for ice thermal storage coils. No liner was required.


Final thermal storage coil being rigged into place.


Ice coil pattern inside steel tank


Competed ice tanks

Below Grade Concrete Tanks

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Overview of Baltimore’s Comfort Link® Camden Yard’s below grade concrete tank. The chiller plant and an additional ice thermal storage tank (located in the basement) is in the Convention Center across the street. Today a parking lot is located above the tank.

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Excavation of the tank

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Pouring concrete slabs

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Glycol supply and return piping to chiller plant in the Convention Center across the street. The piping is located under a busy downtown street.

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Field erected chillers in the Comfort Link® Chiller Plant located in the Convention Center

Ice Thermal Storage Tank roof poured in place

Ice Thermal Storage Tank roof poured in place

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The roof of the tank is insulated

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Access opening for rigging the coils in place

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View from inside the tank

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Installation of coils into tank through the access opening

Camden Yards Ice Coil

Lowering coils into the tank

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Ice Thermal Storage Coils being moved into place using air pads

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Ice Thermal Storage Coils in their final location in the tank

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Completed ice tank with parking lot above. Below the dark paving on the street is the piping to and from the Convention Center chiller plant. The tank is accessible through bulkhead door (circled in photo) located adjacent to parking lot.

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